In , Leontief conducted an empirical test of the H-O theory by applying his In other words, the country resorts to foreign trade in order to economise its. This result has come to be known as the Leontief Paradox. The HO theory generally explains the trade patterns during the post war periods, say – Leontief Paradox: Wassily Leontief: also is known for the “Leontief Paradox. In international trade: Factor endowments: the Heckscher-Ohlin theory.

Author: Virn Maular
Country: Romania
Language: English (Spanish)
Genre: Career
Published (Last): 3 March 2012
Pages: 288
PDF File Size: 10.83 Mb
ePub File Size: 20.55 Mb
ISBN: 764-5-36809-364-6
Downloads: 60930
Price: Free* [*Free Regsitration Required]
Uploader: Kagajas

Theoey difference in wage reflects the existence of human capital. If there had been a consumption bias in the US inthe bias must have been toward increased consumption of the labor-intensive goods.

Leontief should have seen whether or not goods imported into America were capital or labour intensive in the country of origin.

Perfect competition is a hypothetical market situation virtually impossible to generalize and Ricardo assumption that different technologies across countries are a source of comparative advantage seems more realistic. However, Indian trade with the US was not. Vanek proved that natural resources and capital which is consistent with the fact theiry US imports are more natural resource intensive than exports Vaghefi et al Inthis net-export of indirect man-hours was equal to 1, man-years Casas et al.

S foreign trade and its factor content. Salvatore pointed out that the higher labour productivity in the United States than in other countries implies a higher productivity of capital also in that country relative to the other countries. It has provided a good deal of insight into the foreign trade position of the U.


The Leontief Paradox to Heckscher-Ohlin Theory | Economics

His work, assisted by the first use of computer-aided calculations, comprised data on the structure of U. Leontief tested empirically this theory of international trade by using an input-output analysis. It is true that this test is indirect, because technology differences have not so far been recognised as the basis for trade, but still the relative comparative advantages of different countries may be influenced by the research and development expenditure.

He then estimated the capital and labor requirements to produce: Responses to the paradox For many economists, Leontief’s paradox undermined the validity of the Heckscher—Ohlin theorem H—O theory, which predicted that trade patterns would be based on countries’ comparative advantage in certain factors of production such as capital and labour. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.

Leontief paradox – Wikipedia

For instance, the Linder hypothesis states that demand plays a more important role than comparative advantage as a determinant of trade—with the hypothesis that paradoox which share similar demands will be more likely to trade.

Internaational resurrects Leontief’s theory and has proved that when quality indices of factors are incorporated, US exported capital and imported labor services in HOV Theorem. In Leontief repeated the test for US imports and exports which prevailed in Many economists conducted Loentief type studies related to other countries.

Many economists have dismissed the H-O theory in favour of a more Ricardian model where technological differences determine comparative advantage. This trade surplus means that US consumers must reduce consumption of all three goods proportionately due to homothetic preferences.


Swirling pointed out that the Leontief paradox involved a bias because of inclusion of certain industries in case of which capital-labour ratio was low. These products have high capital- labour ratio in the United States process of production.

It lent support to the Leontief paradox and contradicted the H-O theory. Leontief made use of input-output tables related to the U. But still, if H-O theory was correct, its import-substitutes should be less capital-intensive than its exports.

But he argued that US exports were skilled labor- intensive than US imports. In addition, the increase in labour efficiency or productivity to the stated extent implies that productivity of capital should also be three times more than that in the foreign country.

Leontief Paradox Theory (An Overview)

Static theories such as the factor price equalization theorem or the H. A precursor of the alphabet. If the US exports agricultural products, then an LP occurs in India, because a labor-abundant country, India, is importing the labor-intensive good.

For instance, both the United States and Germany are developed countries with a significant demand for cars, so both have large automotive industries. However, some economists like H.

Vanek showed that the United States was relatively scarce of several natural resources. In reality, even if technology advances allowed a decline in costs, it seems erroneous to assume that they are zero. Click here to sign up.